PLA POSTER SET


Instructions


The 29 posters in this set make up a military training wall guide for militiamen. Published by Beijing Military Region Command in 1972 and printed at the Army Printing Works, Beijing

PROMOTE EDUCATION OF THE IDEOLOGICAL LINE AND POLITICAL LINE

Top Left

Act in obedience to Chairman Mao's introduction The lines are a guiding principle, when the general plan is laid out, the details are easy to arrange Engage with the struggle between the 2 lines, deeply promote education of the ideological and political lines and gradually deepen the militiamen's understanding of class struggle, line struggle and the continuing revolution.

Top Right

Intensively reveal the Great Revolutionary Criticism to thoroughly criticise the heinous crimes of the deceivers represented by Liu Shaoqi, who oppose the Peoples War Thoughts of Chairman Mao and have destroyed improvements of militiamen. We must thoroughly eliminate these poisonous influences and raise the consciousness of militiamen to perform and protect the revolutionary line of Chairman Mao.

Bottom Left

Promote education of the current situation, see clearly the aggressive nature of Imperialism and Social Imperialism, and enhance our vigilance to protect our country.

Bottom Centre

Promote class education, keep class and national animosity firmly in mind, hold guns tightly in our hands, protect the dictatorship of the proletariat and undergo radical revolution.

Bottom Right

Preserve heritage, give examples of war to promote education of the Peoples War Thoughts of Chairman Mao, and gradually raise the understanding of the strategic position of the militiamen

COMMAND MILITARY TRAINING BY APPLYING MAO ZEDONG THOUGHT


Military training of militiamen must follow the army building line of Chairman Mao, act on the principle of integration of the labour arm, respond to objective needs, and train rigorously to improve the quality of military government as well as to increase the comabt strength of militiamen

SHOOTING


COMBAT PERFORMANCE OF WEAPONS

Top Left

Semi-automatic rifles, sub-machine guns and light machine guns are the main weapons to annihilate enemy at close quarters. Shooting produces best effects when a single aim is taken at 400m. Aircrafts and paratroopers within 500m can be shot and group aims within 800m could be damaged if fire is concentrated. Bullets remain powerful within a range of 1500m.

Image on the left

INFLUENCE ON THE TARGET CAUSED BY IMBALANCE BETWEEN THE FRONT SIGHT AND THE GAP

{detailed explanation given}

Bottom right

INFLUENCE ON AIMING CAUSED BY SUNLIGHT

[detailed explanation given}

HOLD GUNS ON SUPPORTS IN PRONE, KNEELING AND STANDING POSITIONS; TAKE AIM AND SHOOT

Top Left

SEMI-AUTOMATIC RIFLE AND SUB-MACHINE GUN

We should first learn to use ground objects as supports for shooting, to hide our bidoes and make full use of the firepower to wipe out the enemies properly.

SHOOT FROM PRONE POSITION: When holding semi-automatic rifles and sub-machine guns. {instructions on how to position body are detailed for each type of weapon}

SHOOT IN BUNKERS FROM KNEELING AND STANDING POSITIONS: Kneeling and standing positions are taken according to the depth of the bunker {precise instructions about positioning the body while firing are given}. Suffocating, shrugging, sudden movements and winking are prohibited.

Bottom Right

LIGHT MACHINE GUN

SHOOT FROM PRONE POSITION: When holding the gun, the right side of the body should be in line with the gun {detailed instructions follow}

SHOOT IN BUNKERS FROM KNEELING AND STANDING POSITIONS: Kneel and standing positions are taken according to the depth of the bunker. {detailed shooting instructions are given}

AIMING AND SHOOTING FROM PRONE, KNEELING AND STANDING POSITIONS WITHOUT SUPPORTS

SEMI-AUTOMATIC RIFLE AND SUB_MACHINE GUN

In order to adapt to constantly changing circumstances on the battlefield, we must learn to shoot with supports and master the skills of shooting without supports.

SHOOTING FROM PRONE POSITION

{detailed instructions are given for both weapon categories}

SHOOTING FROM KNEELING POSITION

{detailed instructions are given}

SHOOTING FROM STANDING POSITION

Hold the gun by the under handguard (the magazine case for semi-automatics, the magazine for sub-machine guns) with the left hand, fold left elbow to the inside and hold the neck of the gun with the right hand, raise right upper arm naturally, then bring hand backwards to support the gunstock at the outer edge of the shoulder {detailed instructions follow for aiming and firing}

Under the images

Holding guns in prone position without supports; Holding guns from kneeling position without supports, Holding guns from standing position without supports

On rock:

Increase vigilance to defend our country

GRENADE THROWING


Chairman Mao has pointed out Close combat and night combat are our glorious tradition, used in the past to wipe out our enemies The grenade is a powerful weapon for destroying the enemy at close quarters. In the anti-invasion wars of the future, despite improvements in weaponry, we still need to rely on close combat and night combat to use grenades to wipe out the enemy. Most militiamen must master the skills to throw grenades correctly and far distances

drawing, left: wooden handle grenade

centre: THROWING GRENADE WITH BARE FIST, STANDING POSITION

{detailed instructions given}

bottom left: THROWING GRENADE WITH BARE FIST, KNEELING POSITION

{detailed instructions given}

bottom right: THROWING GRENADE WITH BARE FIST, PRONE POSITION

{detailed instructions given}

THROWING GRENADE WHILE HOLDING A GUN, INSIDE A TRENCH OR ON MOUNTAINS

THROWING GRENADE WHILE HOLDING A GUN

{detailed instructions given}

centre: THROWING GRENADE WHEN INSIDE A TRENCH

Throwing from inside a trench is a method of wiping out the enemy when we are no less than 10m away during combat. When throwing, lean the gun against the trench wall, draw the right foot back one step, move the upper body up and back, bend right leg slightly, stretch left leg and prepare to throw from behind and above the shoulder. Throw by moving the arm forward with force.

top right graph: SIMPLE MISTAKES DURING THROWING AND HOW TO RECTIFY

below right text THROWING WHILE ON MOUNTAINS

{detailed instructions given}

BLASTING


Chairman Mao has pointed out When the war comes, we still need to rely on close combat and night combat as well as relying on explosives During past revolutionary wars vast numbers of soldiers and civilians have used all kinds of blasting methods to fight the enemy under the guidance of the Peoples War Thoughts of Chairman Mao.


This has made a great contribution to victory. Blasting is still an effective method to blow up tanks, forts and all kinds of barriers in modern warfare, so we must foster the revolutionary spirit of never fearing hardship or death, and master the skills of eradicating the enemy with explosives.


graphs, from left: Proportion of ingredients in black powder; Proportion of ingredients in ammonium nitrate dynamite; Properties and use of common dynamites; Properties and uses of weapon components.


bottom right picture instructions:: MAKING IGNITION TUBES

checking the detonator, cutting the fuse, inserting fuse into detonator, tightly squeezing the end of the detonator with tongs


below main picture: Rely on ourselves to produce dynamite by our own method

BUNDLING AND DETONATING METHOD FOR DYNAMITE

THE BUNDLING OF DYNAMITE

Use paper and cloth as wrappers or a box or tube as containers to wrap the explosive. The quantity and shape may change according to the target. Bundle it together tightly and firmly and be practical. Leave the detonator hole open; sticks or ropes may be added to make carrying the bundle more convenient. When fixing the ignition tube to the explosive, insert the detonator tube first, then firmly wrap the fuse onto the dynamite with twine. Inserting or manipulating with force is strictly prohibited.


centre top picture: Ignition method


pictures, right to left: Demolition of bridges, Demolition of bunkers, Demolition of highways

{detailed instructions given for each}


MINES

According to Chairman Mao ‘The most important combat method for militiamen is mine explosion. We must spread the Mine Movement into every village. It is very necessary to mass-produce all kinds of mines and practise detonating skills.’

The mine is a destructive and explosive weapon, which can delay and kill the enemy, and blow up the enemy’s tanks and transport vehicles. During past revolutionary wars, our soldiers and people have conducted extensive ‘mine wars’, which dealt the enemy a heavy blow. In future anti-invasion wars the mine will still be an important weapon to wipe out the enemy. The vast majority of militiamen must learn to produce, lay and remove mines. If the enemy dares to come, we will lay out a minefield to smash their bodies to pieces with no-one able to survive.


top right: mobilise the masses to produce mines


left, top to bottom, each labelled clockwise:

STONE MINE lanyard, stuffing, priming tube, dynamite, stone

CAST IRON MINE dead pin, priming tube, dynamite, mine cover, match pull fuse

WOODEN ANTI-TANK MINE pressing cap, wooden bolt, mine shell, plate pinch, middle plate pinch

{detailed instructions given for each}


centre, bottom: The match push detonator (left); the match pull fuse (right)

{detailed instructions given for making of each}


THE INSTALLATION AND USE OF MINES


top left: THE STEP MINE

Usually set in the path of enemies, such as a village entrance, major roads or highways {detailed instructions for installation and removal are given}


top right: THE TRIP MINE

Usually set in places that are well camouflaged, such as grasslands, farmland, jungle {detailed instructions for installation and removal follow}


bottom left:

THE STONE CASTING MINE

A manipulative mine that could whittle down the enemy's effectiveness by its firing of stones during the explosion. Usually set in places like canyons, valleys, near slopes {detailed instructions for installation follow}


bottom right: THE ROLLING MINE

Rolling from high places to kill the infantry or cavalry of the enemy, it can be used on the slopes of valleys and canyons or on mountain roads {detailed installation instructions are given}

MINE WARFARE


During past revolutionary wars, vast numbers of militiamen have co-operated with the army by engaging in mine warfare, and this maximised our power to deal with and wipe out the enemy.


These militiamen created various mines and different ways to set them, according to the needs of the war and their collective wisdom. They set up mine blockades around the enemy to weaken their ability to take action, as well as planting minefields along the enemy's path to delay and kill them.


Mine cordons have been set around villages to prevent sudden attack. Our militiamen have combined rifles with mines in mine warfare to force or lure the enemy into a mine net or field.


Finally the enemy was badly battered and panic stricken by our widespread development of mine warfare.

MINES


Chairman Mao has said The important combat for militiamen is the explosive mine. We must spread the Mine Movement into every village. It is very necessary to mass produce all kinds of mine and to practice detonating skills The mine is a destructive and explosive weapon. It can delay and kill the enemy and blow up the enemy's tanks and transport vehicles. During past revolutionary wars our soldiers and civilians waged an extensive mine war and dealt the enemy a heavy blow. In the anti-invasion wars of the future the mine will still be an important weapon to wipe out the enemy. Vast numbers of militiamen must learn to make, lay and remove mines. If the enemy dare come, we will lay out a minefield to smash their bodies to pieces so that no-one will survive.


pictures on left: Stone mine, Cast iron mine, Wooden anti-tank mine


picture, top right: MOBILISE THE MASSES TO PRODUCE MINES


pictures, bottom: MAKING THE MATCH PUSH DETONATOR; MAKING THE MATCH PULL FUSE {detailed instructions are given for both}

ATTACKING TANKS


American Imperialism and Soviet Revisionism believe in the theory that weapons alone decide the outcome of war. They worship pillboxes and tanks, and greatly rely on their tanks in warfare, so it is crucual for us to fight against enemy tanks in future anti-invasion wars.


We should act in compliance with Chairman Mao's instruction The whole Party should pay attention to wars, learn from military affairs and prepare to fight and mobilise the masses extensively to work out ways to attack tanks and bring about a widespread practice of attacking tanks. Everybody dares to fight and is able to fight.


Wherever the enemy comes, and no matter how many of them there are, once they launch an aggressive war they will drown in the boundless ocean of the People's War


graph TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL QUALITIES OF TANKS FROM US IMPERIALISM AND SOVIET REVISIONISM

{details of the external dimensions, thickness of armour, weaponry and mobility of 5 models US and Soviet of tanks}

THE VULNERABLE PARTS OF TANKS


There are quite a lot of vulnerable parts on the enemy's tanks despite the thickness of the armour, making destruction easy provided we hit the critical points.


1. Cooling window of the engine: a thick cover with the engine and fuel tank inside working as the heart of the tank. A little damage here would disable the tank; 2. Driving gear and leading gear: the transmission, working as 'two legs' of the tank. The tank will not move if this is damaged; 3. The caterpillar tread and loading wheels: the 'feet' of the tank. The tank cannot move if the tread or more than 2 of the wheels are damaged; 4. The periscope, sighting telescope and peephole are the 'eyes' of the tank. The tank becomes blind if these are damaged; 5. Base of the tank and the top of the turret are the thinnest parts of the 'shell' with a thickness of the length of a finger and easy to damage,


left diagram THE OBSERVATION DEAD ANGLE OF THE ENEMY'S TANK

Some parts become invisible from inside the tank after the door has closed. The periscope and peephole is used to observe the length of the tank but it has a dead angle of 7-8 metres. The length of the turret can only be seen from the direction of theturret body through the sighting telescope, and there's a dead angle of about 4m. So it is possibe to get close to the tank from its side and back.


right diagram DEAD ANGLE OF FIRE POWER OF ENEMY TANKS

The cannon and machine gun on the tank can move with the turret and shoot around, but it can only shoot from one direction at a time and has a dead angle of about 23m. Any gun on the front can only shoot forwards and has a dead angle of 13m. It is best to get close to the tank from either side or the back, quickly and secretly.

THE BEST TIME TO ATTACK TANKS


top left TURNING

The tank slows down and the inside of the caterpillar tread stops moving so this is an opportune time to destroy the tank

top right MOVING UPHILL

The observation and shooting dead angles are larger and the speed lower. The tank body is high in the front and low at the back making it easy to climb onto the back and destroy the tank

bottom left MOVING DOWNHILL

The speed is higher and the body of the tank keeps low at the front and high at the back making it best to destroy the back of the tread

bottom right PASSING THROUGH A TRENCH

The caterpillar tread is high in the air when the tank is passing through a trench and we can make use of the trench to insert dynamite between the 2 loading wheels to damage the tank

ANTI-TANK OBSTACLES



top left picture: The main irrigation and drainage canal: anti-tank trench


ANTI-TANK TRENCH: Usually built on terrain where the enemy is likely to go, water might be stored in the trench where possible


top right picture: Terrace, pitfall, terrace


PITFALL: Usually dug in the road of tanks, like in valleys or gorges, where it is hard to manoeuvre. The cover of the pit must be firm enough to support motorcycles and the depth and length should be the same as the anti-tank trench

PRECIPICE AND CLIFF: On slopes of 15-25 degrees steep hillsides of 2-3.5m could be built from a terrace, river bank, river cliff or deep valley. It works as a perfect anti-tank obstacle during wars


bottom STONE OBSTACLES: these are hugely useful and hard for the enemy to surmount. During installation big stones are set on crucial roads, gorges, irigation ditches, mountain passes or anywhere it is hard to manoeuvre more than 20m. They can be set using explosives on the eve of battle

METHODS TO ATTACK TANKS


We must carry on the revolutionary spirit to 'not fear hardship and death' during combat against tanks. We must act with bravery, composure and flexibility to gain speed, precision, stability and strength


HACKING LEGS: damage moving parts to inhibit flexibility. Anti-tank soldiers may wait in ambushes beside the only road of enemy tanks and act quickly as soon as they get near to put detonators or attach explosive packages with metal or woodbonto the caterpillar board

SCOOPING OUT THE HEART: damage the engine and transmission to stop it moving. An iron hook attached to an explosive package such as a grenade or Bangalore torpedo with a wooden stick of about 1.5m tied to it can be hung onto the cooling window of the engine.

CUTTING OUT THE BELLY: Blow up the door of the commanding tower and the control cabin to kill enemies inside the tank and to end the tank's combat effectiveness. Throw an explosive package onto the cover of the cabin. Two sticks could be fixed on the sides of the package, about twice its length, to stop the package rolling.

SCOOPING OUT EYES: damage or block up the sight telescope or other scopes to blind the tank. Take advantage of a tank turning, going up and down slopes or travelling across a barrier to climb onto the tank from its side to destroy it

ATTACK TANKS WITH EXPLOSIVE BAGS


top tank: Blast the driving gear or the combination part of the turret using the hook method

top left tank: Blast the caterpillar treads with splints

top right tank: Blast the caterpillar treads using the inserting method

bottom left tank: Blast the cockpit cover with hoop-linked explosive bags

bottom right tank: Blast the engine using throwing method


centre text

{details of the blasting methods are given}


table REFERENCE FOR THE QUANTITY OF DYNAMITE TO BLAST ENEMY TANKS

{details of the quantity of TNT and Ammonia Dynamite to blast the listed vulnerable parts of a tank}

ATTACK TANKS WITH ANTI-TANK WEAPONS


on left

Recoilless guns and antitank guns are the most effective to shoot an enemy tank or other armoured target within 600m. They're normally set in the direction from which the enemy is likely to appear or on either side of the enemy's only route, or under any shelter that provides the opportunity for perfect fire and mobility. Open fire unexpectedly to demolish the enemy quickly, properly and bravely as soon as they get near


on right

The bazooka and rifle grenade get best results when shooting enemy tanks or armoured vehicles 100-500 metres away. They are usually set in the direction from which the enemy is likely to appear or on either side of the enemy's only route, or under any shelter that provides the opportunity for perfect fire and mobility.

Aim should be at the centre of the tank for stationary tanks. If the tank moves transversally a lead must be calculated according to the tank's speed and the distance: Speed of the tank x time for the bazooka to reach it's aim (50m 0.6s, 100m 1.2s)

ATTACK AGGREGATIVE TANKS


top left: Sudden and violent firepower should be used to demolish the enemy's infantry when their tanks are covering them. Demolition soldiers should be sent in time to attack when the tanks and infantry are isolated.


top right: If several of the enemy's tanks rush to our position, we should first attack those which are most threatening, are easily accessible or those that are already weakened. After damaging the most threatening to prevent them from rushing at us, the other tanks are easy to damage.


bottom left: For tank troops processing on roads and valleys we should attack the lead tank and the rear tank first to stop the line advancing or retreating. The others can then be attacked one-by-one.


bottom right: Dynamite pits are dug in advance along or at both ends of a valley or on winding mountain roads. The amount of dynamite filled into the pit is according to need or tactics. The dynamite needs to be detonated once the enemy enters the explosion zone, then we can block the enemy's retreat and destroy them


ANTI-AIRCRAFT FIRING


TYPES OF AIRCRAFT FROM US IMPERIALISM AND SOVIET REVISIONISM


Left PLANE EMBLEMS

China, Soviet Revisionism, US Imperialism, Mongolia, Japan, India, the Kuomintang


Centre

USSR Pursuit Bomber, cruising speed 950kph, 260m per second, body length 17m, wing length 9.8m

USSR Du-22 Medium Bomber, cruising speed 980kph, 270mps, body length 39.6m, wing length 24.4-24.7m

USSR An-22 Long distance air carrier, cruising speed 600kph, 70mps, body length 57.8m, wing length 64.4m

USSR Mi-6 helicopter, cruising speed 250kph, 70mps, body length 33.18m, height 9.86m


Right

US F-105D Thunder God tactical fighter, cruising speed 960kph, 270mps, body length 19.59m, wing length 10.64m

US Air B-58A medium bomber, cruising speed 960kph, 270mps, body length 29.49m, wing length 17.32m

US UH-1D Utility helicopter, cruising speed 200kph, 60mps, body length 12.27m, height 3.9m

US C-130E The Giant medium air carrier, cruising speed 545-587kph, 160-170mps, body length 29.78m, wing length 40.25m

HOW TO SHOOT THE ENEMY"S PLANE


US Imperialism and Soviet Revisionism believe in the theory that weapons alone decide the outcome of war and they have blind faith in so-called 'air superiority.' It is one of our important tasks to fight against the enemy's airplanes and paratroopers in future anti-invasion wars. We must act in compliance with Chairman Mao's instruction Be prepared to deal with sudden attacks and prepare sufficiently in both material and mental ways, foster the determination to fight and win, and carry on the spirit of never fear hardships or death.

Spare no effort to wipe out the invading enemies


pictures on left

1. When shooting planes in level flight a fuselage multiple must be calculated according to the plane's speed, distance and length of the plane

2. When shooting planes diving sideways, the aiming point should be in the direction of the dive, or in which it leaves the dive. During the dive the plane speed increases by a quarter.

pictures on right

When shooting diving planes the aiming point differs according to the situation. If diving towards the shooter aim at the head of the plane, if flying away after a dive, aim at the tail. As the plane is roughly in the same direction as the shooting line, there is no need to calculate a lead.


graph 1. REFERENCE FOR THE LEAD OF MILITIAMEN"S WEAPONS

{details given for submachine guns, rifles, machine guns of different heights and large and small fuselages at various speeds}

graph 2 REFERENCE FOR JUDGING THE DISTANCE OF PLANES

200m, number of people and their hats are visible,

300-400m, plane emblem, number and the join between cabin and cover are visible

500-600m colour of plane visible, emblem and numbers unclear

800-900m fuselage, wing and tail are distinctive

1200m only the shape is visible

SHOOTING ENEMY PLANES WITH RIFLES AND SUB_MACHINE GUNS


Top left

After the rear sight of the rifle or sub-machine gun is set at 3 feet, fire can be concentrated on enemy planes within 500m. During anti-aircraft firing ground objects can be used as support according to the situation and the terrain. Upward, kneeling and standing positions can be taken if no ground objects are available


Pictures, left to right, top to bottom

Anti-aircraft firing by trees

Anti-aircraft firing by enclosures

Anti-aircraft firing by fortifications

Anti-aircraft firing by soil pits

Kneeling and standing positions where there are no ground objects on which to rely

SHOOTING ENEMY PLANES WITH HEAVY MACHINE GUNS, LIGHT MACHINE GUNS AND ANTI-AIRCRAFT WEAPONS


Top left LIGHT MACHINE GUN

Top right HEAVY MACHINE GUN

bottom left ANTI AIRCRAFT GUNS

bottom right 37mm ANTI AIRCRAFT GUNS


{instructions given for each weapon type}



GO ALL OUT TO WIPE OUT INVADING ENEMIES


Act in compliance with Chairman Mao's instruction Concentrate superior forces to destroy the enemy one by one.


The principle of concentrating fire at close quarters must be carried out during anti-aircraft firing and we must do this at speed to repay the enemy for the fast and sudden character of their planes.


Rear sights of our weapons must be set without mistakes and lead and aiming points must be adopted precisely.


We must shoot together as soon as the enemy flies into the effective shooting distance. Usually each platoon or squad is responsible for causing damage to one plane, and can then go on to another after the damage is done.


SHOOTING PARATROOPERS


Picture, top left: The enemy's paratroopers decelerate when they are landing. They are distracted and confused and may lose control. This is a favourable opportunity to seize and we should concentrate our fire on those nearer and lower before firing on those further away and higher.


We should spare no effort to wipe out the enemy when they are in the air and cannot stand firm. The lead should be taken in the direction in which the enemy is landing, starting from the paratroopers' feet


Picture, bottom left: When the paratroopers are landing, a directional deviation may occur because of inertia of the plane or wind. This deviation should be taken into account when shooting


Picture, right: Before the enemy lands we should concentrate our fire on the planes. Then rifles, machine guns, sub-machine guns and grenades should all be used to attack the enemies as soon as they jump down from their planes. Finally we must surround and annihilate them as fast as we can afetr their landing. If they land in complex areas we should first gain control of highlands, hill tops, forests and undulating hills and set observation posts there, as well as mounting guards at the entrances of main roads to block escape


graph REFERENCE FOR LEAD OF WEAPONS USED BY MILITIAMEN DURING COMBAT WITH PARATROOPERS

{according to shooting distance and weapon type}


ATTACK TANKS USING INDIGENOUS METHODS



picture, top left AIR STONE THROWING MINE

Consists of dynamite, stones, clapboard and electric detonator. Normally there is 10-15kg of dynamite in each cubic metre of stone. Stones can fly as high as 200-250m after explosion. Granades can be set partly on the stones to magnify killing effectiveness


picture, middle top AIR CAST IRON THROWING MINE

Consists of projecting tube, projecting dynamite, electric detonator and mine. A 3.8kg cast iron mine can be thrown as high as 500-700m when using 0.5kg of black powder. The mine can explode at various heights according to fuse length, with 5-6cms exploding at 500-700m


picture, bottom left THROWING GRENADES WITH THROWERS

Throwers may be single or multi-tube and both consist of the projecting tube, projecting dynamite, electric detonator and the grenades. The single tube has a base plate. The quantity of grenades varies according to the thickness of the no less than 5cm high tubes. Multi-tube throwers have a number of 40cm tubes, one grenade in each. Throwing heights and quantity of dynamite are based on experiments


picture, right SHOOT GRENADES WITH RIFLES

A launching tube is made to cover over the rifle, a grenade is inserted and launched with a blank grenade. Diameter of the 15cm tube varies according to the rifle bore and a 5g pack of black powder can be added into the tube to enhance launching